Disney Answer: No
While Disney’s Wilderness Lodge and Disney’s Contemporary Resort are only about 1,000 feet apart, you cannot walk between the two. They are separated by a body of water, the canal that runs between Seven Seas Lagoon and Bay Lake. While World Drive runs in front of both resorts, there isn’t any sidewalk or anyway to walk on the road.
While you can’t walk from the Wilderness Lodge and the Contemporary, there is a boat that runs between the two resorts as well as the Magic Kingdom and Disney’s Fort Wilderness Resort, so you can get back and forth between the two.